Sunday, May 22, 2005

PRISIP DASAR RELATIVITAS

Pada hakikatnya gerakan itu relatif dan hukum Newton hanya berlaku dalam system koordinat yang dinyatakan mutlak diam.Untuk itu dianggap ada medium ether yang dipandang mutlak diam terhadap semua benda atau materi bergerak. Sebenarnya hukum Newton juga diberlakukan bagi gerakan didalam sistem koordinat. Inersial, yang bergerak dengan kecepatan tetap. Dikatakan bahwa hukum Newton itu invariant artinya tak berbeda bentuknya, di sembarang system koordinat inersial. Yang bergerak satu sama lain dengan kecepatan tetap..
Tetapi tidak demikian halnya dengan gejala dan rumus elektrodinamika tidaklah invariant di dalam sembarang system koordinat inersial, sehingga menuntut keberadaan medium ether ynag dianggap mutlak diam. Akan tetapi keberadaan hipotesis ether itu tidak dapat dipertahankan terus karena kenyataannya banyak gejala alam yang bertentangan dengan keberadaan ether itu . Di lain pihak, sebaliknya dengan teori relativitas khusus yang dikemukakan Albert Einstein pada tahun 1905 dapat dibuktikan bahwa rumus-rumus elektrodinamika dan bahkan semua rumus fisika dapat dinyatakan invariant terhadap pemilihan system koordinat inersial, maksudnya berlaku sama di sembarang system koordinat inersial.

Ciri teori relativitas Enstein ini berbeda dengan konsep mekanika Newton, waktu bukanlah besaran mutlak. Artinya, selang waktu didalam suatu system koordinat tidak sma panjangnya di dalam sitem koordinat lain yang bergerak terhadap system koordinat tadi.

Transformasi Galilean
Kita bandingkan gerakan di dalam sistem koordinat S yang bergerak sepanjang sumbu X dengan kecepatan v yang tetap terhadap sistem koordinat S0 di dalam mana koordinat-koordinat titik ialah x0, y0, dan z0. maka berlakulah apa yang di sebut persamaan transformasi Galilean :
X= xo-vt ; y=y0 ; z=z0
yang menghubungkan koordinat-koordinat di dalam kedua system koordinat. Dengan mendeferensialkan ketiga hubungan diatas terhadap t 2 kali maka ternyata percepatan di kedua system koordinat itu adalah sama sehingga hukum inersil Newton dalam wujud hukum Newton II yang mendasari semua rumus mekanika adalah sama. Hukum mekanika Newton itu adalah invariant terhadap transformasi Galilea: atau dapat dikatakan bahwa hukum Newton berlaku sama untuk semua system koordinat inersial. Tetapi tidaklah demikian dengan rumus-rumus elektrodinamika sebagaimana muatan listrik di dalam system koordinat yang diam akan tampak sebagai arus listrik di dalam system koordinat yang bergerak sehingga dlihat dari system koordinat ang bergerak akan akan nampak adanya medan magnet yang mengelilingi arus listrik tersebut. Hal itu berarti hukum elektromagnetika tidak invariant terhadap transformasi Galilean.

Percobaan Michelson-Morley
Percobaan Michelson dan Morley-lah yang pada hakikatnya mendorong lahirnya teori relativitas khusus yang dibidani oleh Albert Einstein itu
Dengan menggunakan interferometer ciptaannya, Michelson berasam amorley mencoba mendeteksi rotasi bumi. Dengan lengan-lengan interferometer pada arah timur-barat dan utara-selatan, berkas sinar cahaya lampu naterium dari \S diarahkan ke plat kaca K di mana sinar itu sebagian di pantulkan ke cermin C2 untuk kemudian dipantulkan lebih lanjut oleh kaca K k teleskop T pula. Dengan jarak 1 dari masing-masing cermin ke lintasan yang sama, kedua sinar (1) dan (2) menempuh .panjang lintasan yang sama dari kaca ke cermin ke teleskop seandainya bumi tak berotasi, sewaktu sinar (1) kembali ke K sesudah di pantulkan di C1, bersama rotasi bumi, lempeng kaca K telah bergeser ke K selama selang waktu t1. Di lain pihak dengan tegesernya C2 denan kecepatan v mialnya, eolah-olah kecepatan sinar (2) dalam perjalanannya dari C2 ke K, kecepatannya seolah-olah sebesar c+v, sehingga selang waktu yang diperlukan ole sinar (2) untuk menempuh jarak dari K ke C2 kembali ke K adalah :=i/c-v + 1/c+v = 21 c/c-v

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